Experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of preheating temperature on cutting force, chip shape and surface roughness in hot turning of AISI630 hardened stainless steel


School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran, Iran


Hot machining is a type of cutting operation that an external heat source is used to pre-heat and consequently reduce the yield strength of the workpiece material. In this study, the conventional and hot turning of AISI630 hardened stainless steel, which is widely used in energy equipment, aerospace, and petrochemical industries, have been evaluated in both numerical and experimental methods. Simulation of the turning process is carried out by finite elements method (FEM) using AdvantEdge software. To predict chip morphology and cutting forces, the 2D and 3D FEM analyses have been used, respectively. The numerical analysis showed that hot turning in 300°C causes a reduction of 28% in cutting forces and consequently decreases stressed on the cutting tool. It is found that the main factor affecting the fluctuations of the cutting forces in turning of hardened AISI630 is the saw-tooth formation phenomenon (chip segmentation) as well as the shear band generation due to thermal softening of the workpiece material. Furthermore, the relation between cutting force fluctuation and the machined surface roughness has been investigated applying numerical analysis and experimental data. The results of roughness measurement revealed that hot turning in 300°C reduces the machined surface roughness up to 23%. In addition, it has been observed that hot turning technique decreases side flow and surface damages in comparison to conventional turning.


[1] Azhdari S, Shoja Razavi R, Vafaei R (2017) Pulsed laser-assisted machining of Inconel 718 superalloy. Optics & Laser Technology 87:72–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2016.07.020
[2] Lajis MA, Nurul Amin A, Karim ANM, Radzi H, Ginta TL (2009) Hot Machining of Hardened Steels with Coated Carbide Inserts. American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2:421-442. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2009.421.427
[3] Ha, J.H. ; Lee, C.M. (2019) A Study on the Thermal Effect by Multi Heat Sources and Machining Characteristics of Laser and Induction Assisted Milling. Materials (Basel). 12, 1032-1053.https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071032.
[4] Ganta V, Chakradhar D (2014) Multi objective optimization of hot machining of 15-5PH stainless steel using grey relation analysis. Procedia Materials Science 5:1810-1818.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2014.07.468
[5] Muhammad R, Maurotto A, Roy A, Silberschmidt V (2012) Hot ultrasonically assisted turning of β-Ti alloy, 5th CIRP Conference on High Performance Cutting 2012 ,Procedia CIRP 1:336-341.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2012.04.060
[6] Ginta TL, Nurul Amin A (2012) Cutting Force and Tool Life Models in End Milling Titanium Alloy Ti-4Al-4V with Thermally-Assisted Machining. Int. J. of Mechanical Computational and Manufacturing Research 1(1):1-5.
[7] Bermingham MJ, Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS (2012) Understanding the tool wear mechanism during thermally assisted machining Ti-6Al-4V. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 62(1):76-87.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2012.07.001
[8] Germain G, DalSanto P, Lebrun JL (2011) Comprehension of chip formation in laser assisted machining. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51:230–238.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.11.006
[9] Xi Y, Bermingham M, Wang G, Dargusch M (2014) SPH/FE modeling of cutting force and chip formation during thermally assisted machining of Ti6Al4V alloy. Computational Materials Science 84:188–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.12.018
[10]Chien WT, Tsai CS (2003) The investigation on the prediction of tool wear and the determination of optimum cutting conditions in machining 17-4PH stainless steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 140:340–345.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00753-2
[11]Mohanty A, Gangopadhyay S, Thakur A (2015) On Applicability of Multilayer Coated Tool in Dry Machining of Aerospace Grade Stainless Steel. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 31(7):869-879. https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2015.1070413
[12]Sivaiah P, Chakradhar D (2017) Experimental investigation on feasibility of cryogenic, MQL, wet and dry machining environments in turning of 17-4 PH stainless steel. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 32(15): 1775-1788.https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2017.1339317
[13]Khani S, Farahnakian M, Razfar MR (2015) Experimental study on Hybrid Cryogenic and Plasma-Enhaced Turning of 17-4PH Stainless Steel. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 30:868–874. https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2014.984200
[14]Bermingham MJ, Kent D, Dargusch MS (2015) A new understanding of the wear processes during laser assisted milling 17-4 precipitation hardened stainless steel. Wear 328-329:518–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2015.03.025
[15]AdvantEdge 7.1 User’s manual, Third Wave Systems Inc.
[16]Ebrahimi SM, Araee AR, Hadad MJ (2019) Investigation of the effects of constitutive law on numerical analysis of turning processes to predict the chip morphology, tool temperature and cutting force. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 105: 4245–4264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04502-7
[17]Belhadi S, Mabrouki T, Rigal JF, Boulanouar L (2005) Experimental and numerical study of chip formation during straight turning of hardened AISI 4340 steel. Proc. IMechE Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture 219 (7):515-524. https://doi.org/10.1243/095440505X32445
[18]Calamaz M, Coupard D, Girot F (2008) A New Material Model for 2D Numerical Simulation of Serrated Chip Formation When Machining Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 48: 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2007.10.014