Energy harvesting from fluid flow using cantilever beam integrated with piezoelectric layer

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Marine and Hydrokineti Energy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Mechatronic Department, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biosystems Engineering, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran



Being inspired by nature and moving towards clean energy has become a very necessary and indispensable objective these days. By observing a collection of plants/vegetation growing underneath the rivers, oceans, and seas, the idea of designing a plant farm being capable of absorb fluid energy was born. The farm comprises numerous aluminum cantilever beams equipped with a piezoelectric layer in different shapes. The field has elements of different sizes and natural frequencies, where the maximum voltage can be obtained using the resonance phenomenon. Frequency of the fluid flow is considered, because it follows the oscillatory behavior of the wakes and vortices when the fluid passes through the obstacle. The Strouhal number helps to obtain the fluid frequency according to the fluid velocity and the characteristic length of the barrier. In this research, it was observed that the increase in the length of the aluminum layer caused a rise in the voltage generated. The triangular model produced a higher amount of voltage compared with the other three-dimensional models i.e. the rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular ones. Therefore, it was concluded that providing the farm with triangular elements with different dimensions is considered to be an effective and reasonable measure. Actually, having a variety of sizes of these elements covers a wide range of natural frequencies causing a higher number of them to be excited.


[1] J. M. C. Mehmet Kanoglu, Yunus A Cengel, Fundamentals and Applications of Renewable Energy. Mc Graw Hill, 2019.
[2] J. Courault, Marine Renewable Energy Handbook Edited by. 2012.
[3] O. U. R. Commitment, O. U. R. Strategy, E. Use, and E. Management, “Energy and Renewable Energy,” pp. 2013–2014, 2014.
[4] M. Hunstig, Piezoelectric inertia motors - a critical review of history, concepts, design, appli- cations, and perspectives. 2017.
[5] H. Mutsuda, Y. Tanaka, R. Patel, Y. Doi, Y. Moriyama, and Y. Umino, “A painting type of flexible piezoelectric device for ocean energy harvesting,” Appl. Ocean Res., vol. 68, pp. 182–193, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.apor.2017.08.008.
[6] S. F. Nabavi, A. Farshidianfar, A. Afsharfard, and H. H. Khodaparast, “An ocean wave-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system using breaking wave force,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 151, pp. 498–507, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2018.12.008.
[7] N. V. Viet, X. D. Xie, K. M. Liew, N. Banthia, and Q. Wang, “Energy harvesting from ocean waves by a floating energy harvester,” Energy, vol. 112, pp. 1219–1226, 2016, doi: 10.1016/
[8] X. D. Xie, Q. Wang, and N. Wu, “Energy harvesting from transverse ocean waves by a piezoelectric plate,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., vol. 81, pp. 41–48, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2014.04.003.
[9] S. F. Nabavi, A. Farshidianfar, A. Afsharfard, and H. H. Khodaparast, “An ocean wave-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system using breaking wave force,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 151, no. June 2018, pp. 498–507, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2018.12.008.
[10] N. Wu, Q. Wang, and X. D. Xie, “Ocean wave energy harvesting with a piezoelectric coupled buoy structure,” Appl. Ocean Res., vol. 50, pp. 110–118, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.apor.2015.01.004.
[11] Y. Amini, M. Heshmati, P. Fatehi, and S. E. Habibi, “Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vibrations of a beam subjected to multi-moving loads,” Appl. Math. Model., vol. 49, pp. 1–16, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2017.04.043.
[12] A. S. Zurkinden, F. Campanile, and L. Martinelli, “Wave Energy Converter through Piezoelectric Polymers,” 2007.
[13] P. V. Control, D6BDFCF7C799D28D8CC5854FE888C298.pdf.
[14] M. M. Hassan, M. Y. Hossain, R. Mazumder, R. Rahman, and M. A. Rahman, “Vibration energy harvesting in a small channel fluid flow using piezoelectric transducer,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 1754, 2016, doi: 10.1063/1.4958432.
[15] L. E. Wang, Q.M., Cross, A piezoelectric pseudoshear multilayer actuator. 1998.
[16] K. Shigeki, and S. Yoshimura. "Coupled iterative partitioning analysis for flow-driven piezoelectric energy harvesters." Journal of Fluids and Structures 123 (2023): 104009.
[17] I. B. Barna Szabo, Finite Element Analysis Method, Verification, and Validation, Second Edi. Wiley Series in Computational Mechanics, 2021.
[18] A. G. A. Muthalif and N. H. D. Nordin, “Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process., vol. 54, pp. 417–426, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2014.07.014.