Optimization of cold thermal energy storage systems with commissioning and storage time approach by using intelligent algorithms

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The use of cold thermal energy storage systems (CTES) is to decrease power consumption in air conditioning systems. CTES systems have 2 types full operating mode (FOM) and partial operating mode (POM). Objective functions are considered as exergy efficiency and total annual cost because of releasing co2 of CTES systems. Multi-objective techniques are used in MOPSO and SEAP2 algorithm to optimize target functions. The fidings achieved from multi-objective analysis indicate a difference in the optimal amounts of design points compared to single- objective optimization, objective function 1 (exergy efficiency) and objective function2 (total annual costs). Also the report of studying this model represent that because of the use of CTES, there is reduction of electricity consumption. Also because of transferring cooling load from peak hours to low consumption and reduced power consumption, we have a reduction in operating costs comparing to a traditional air conditioning system. Finally, the results show that the payback period for an CTES system in partial storage mode is 3.43 years and for a full storage system is close to 3.88 years, however, due to further reduction of operating costs in full storage mode, the total stored cost of this system after the useful life of the set (15 years) is more than partial storage type. it should be noted that the use of the CTES system decreases the production of CO2, which reduces environmental pollution. Finally, the PCMs used in the construction industry are introduced and compared with each other in terms of exergy efficiency.


[1] A. Hauer, “Innovative thermal energy storage systems for residential use,” Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, ZAE Bayern, vol. 8, 2002.
[2] S. Sanaye and M. Hekmatian, “Ice thermal energy storage (ITES) for air-conditioning application in full and partial load operating modes,” International journal of Refrigeration, vol. 66, pp. 181–197, 2016.
[3] I. Dincer and M. Rosen, Thermal energy storage: systems and applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
[4] I. Dincer and M. A. Rosen, “Energetic, environmental and economic aspects of thermal energy storage systems for cooling capacity,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1105–1117, 2001.
[5] B. A. Habeebullah, “Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 355–363, 2007.
[6] H.-J. Chen, D. W. P. Wang, and S.-L. Chen, “Optimization of an ice-storage air conditioning system using dynamic programming method,” Applied thermal engineering, vol. 25, no. 2–3, pp. 461–472, 2005.
[7] Y. Bi, T. Guo, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and F. Sun, “Entropy generation minimization for charging and discharging processes in a gas-hydrate cool storage system,” Applied Energy, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1149–1157, 2010.
[8] S. Sanaye and A. Shirazi, “Thermo-economic optimization of an ice thermal energy storage system for air-conditioning applications,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 60, pp. 100–109, 2013.
[9] S. Sanaye and A. Shirazi, “Four E analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ice thermal energy storage for air-conditioning applications,” International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 828–841, 2013.
[10] S. Sanaye and M. Hekmatian, “Comparison of demand limiting and load leveling operating modes of ice cold energy storage (ICES) in an air-conditioning system,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, vol. 234, no. 1, pp. 137–156, 2020.
[11] S. M. Alirahmi, S. B. Mousavi, A. R. Razmi, and P. Ahmadi, “A comprehensive techno-economic analysis and multi-criteria optimization of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) hybridized with solar and desalination units,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 236, p. 114053, 2021.
[12] H. A. Dhahad, S. Ahmadi, M. Dahari, H. Ghaebi, and T. Parikhani, “Energy, exergy, and exergoeconomic evaluation of a novel CCP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell integrated with absorption and ejector refrigeration cycles,” Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 21, p. 100755, 2021.
[13] A. Behzadi, A. Habibollahzade, P. Ahmadi, E. Gholamian, and E. Houshfar, “Multi-objective design optimization of a solar based system for electricity, cooling, and hydrogen production,” Energy, vol. 169, pp. 696–709, 2019.
[14] M. Ameri and P. Ahmadi, “The study of ambient temperature effects on exergy losses of a heat recovery steam generator,” in Challenges of Power Engineering and Environment, Springer, 2007, pp. 55–60.
[15] O. Kizilkan and I. Dincer, “Borehole thermal energy storage system for heating applications: Thermodynamic performance assessment,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 90, pp. 53–61, 2015.
[16] P. Ahmadi, I. Dincer, and M. A. Rosen, “Exergy, exergoeconomic and environmental analyses and evolutionary algorithm based multi-objective optimization of combined cycle power plants,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 5886–5898, 2011.
[17] I. Dincer, “Thermal energy storage systems as a key technology in energy conservation,” International journal of energy research, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 567–588, 2002.
[18] V. Srinivasan and A. D. Shocker, “Linear programming techniques for multidimensional analysis of preferences,” Psychometrika, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 337–369, 1973.
[19] D. Wu and R. Wang, “Combined cooling, heating and power: A review,” progress in energy and combustion science, vol. 32, no. 5–6, pp. 459–495, 2006.
[20] Q. Gu, H. Ren, W. Gao, and J. Ren, “Integrated assessment of combined cooling heating and power systems under different design and management options for residential buildings in shanghai,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 51, pp. 143–152, 2012.
[21] A. H. ASHRAE, “System and Equipment, ASHRAE,” Inc., Atlanta, USA, 2008.
[22] “RIMO 2006.” [Online]. Available: www.irimo.ir/English/ statistics/synopH/Ahwaz.txt.‎.
[23] M. A. Rosen, I. Dincer, and N. Pedinelli, “Thermodynamic performance of ice thermal energy storage systems,” J. Energy Resour. Technol., vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 205–211, 2000.
[24] S. I. Edition, “ASHRAE HANDBOOK.” 1993.
[25] A. M. Khudhair and M. M. Farid, “A review on energy conservation in building applications with thermal storage by latent heat using phase change materials,” Energy conversion and management, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 263–275, 2004.
[26] S. Sanaye, A. Fardad, and M. Mostakhdemi, “Thermoeconomic optimization of an ice thermal storage system for gas turbine inlet cooling,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 1057–1067, 2011.