The assessment and experimental study of photovoltaics panel by spraying water (case study: Kerman, Iran)


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Shahid Chamran, Kerman Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sistan and Bluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

3 Islamic Azad University-Kerman Branch, Kerman, Iran



Today, utilizing renewable and clean sources of solar energy by solar systems is continuously increasing. Given that the output power of solar cells is dependent on radiation intensity, temperature, and voltage of the terminal, controlling their performance in order to maximum absorbed power has high importance. The high photovoltaic temperature in hot seasons leads to reduce panel power. Therefore, the water spraying on the photovoltaic panel was implemented on the photovoltaic panel. The effect of spraying water on the photovoltaic panel showed that spraying water on the panel during a warm day can significantly improve the panel's power. In this work, non-potable water (green space irrigation) has been used to cool and clean the photovoltaic panel. Reducing the price of photovoltaic systems by using fewer panels due to achieved of the panels to the more power is another significant advantage of spraying water on the photovoltaic panel. Results show that the efficiency of the experimented system increased by 20%.


[1] Yazdanifard F., Ameri M.  Exergetic advancement of photovoltaic/thermal systems (PV/T): A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (2018), Vol. 97, pp. 529-553.
[2] Skoplaki E., Palyvos J. A.  On the temperature dependence of photovoltaic module electrical performance: A review of efficiency/power correlations, solar energy, (2009), Vol. 83, pp. 614-624.
[3] Shahsavar A., Sardari P. T., Yasseri S., Babaei R.  Performance evaluation of a naturally ventilated photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collector: A case study, Journal homepage: www. IJEE. IEEFoundation. org, (2018), Vol. 9, pp. 455-472.
[4] Perpiña Castillo C., Batista e Silva F., Lavalle C.  An assessment of the regional potential for solar power generation in EU-28, Energy Policy, (2016), Vol. 88, pp. 86-99.
[5] Masoum M. A., Dehbonei H., Fuchs E. F.  Theoretical and experimental analyses of photovoltaic systems with voltage and current-based maximum power-point tracking, IEEE Transactions on energy conversion, (2002), Vol. 17, pp. 514-522.
[6] Luque A., Hegedus S.  Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering, (2011), 0470976128, John Wiley & Sons.
[7] Krauter S.  Solar electric power generation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, (2006), Vol., pp. 2006.
[8] Khatib T., Elmenreich W.  Modeling of Photovoltaic Systems Using MATLAB: Simplified Green Codes, (2016), 1119118107, John Wiley & Sons.
[9] Joshi A. S., Tiwari A.  Energy and exergy efficiencies of a hybrid photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) air collector, Renewable Energy, (2007), Vol. 32, pp. 2223-2241.
[10] Jie J., Hua Y., Wei H., Gang P., Jianping L., Bin J.  Modeling of a novel Trombe wall with PV cells, Building and Environment, (2007), Vol. 42, pp. 1544-1552.
[11] Jie J., Hua Y., Gang P., Bin J., Wei H.  Study of PV-Trombe wall assisted with DC fan, Building and Environment, (2007), Vol. 42, pp. 3529-3539.
[12] Jia Y., Alva G., Fang G.  Development and applications of photovoltaic–thermal systems: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (2019), Vol. 102, pp. 249-265.
[13] Ito M., Kato K., Sugihara H., Kichimi T., Song J., Kurokawa K.  A preliminary study on potential for very large-scale photovoltaic power generation (VLS-PV) system in the Gobi desert from economic and environmental viewpoints, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, (2003), Vol. 75, pp. 507-517.
[14] Hosseinzadeh M., Sardarabadi M., Passandideh-Fard M.  Energy and Exergy Analysis of Nanofluid Based Photovoltaic Thermal System Integrated with Phase Change Material, Energy.
[15] Hosseinzadeh M., Salari A., Sardarabadi M., Passandideh-Fard M.  Optimization and parametric analysis of a nanofluid based photovoltaic thermal system: 3D numerical model with experimental validation, Energy Conversion and Management, (2018), Vol. 160, pp. 93-108.
[16] Habibollahzade A.  Employing photovoltaic/thermal panels as a solar chimney roof: 3E analyses and multi-objective optimization, Energy, (2019), Vol. 166, pp. 118-130.
[17] Häberlin H.  Photovoltaics: system design and practice, (2012), 1119978386, John Wiley & Sons.
[18] Goetzberger A., Hoffmann V. U.  Photovoltaic solar energy generationed., (2005), 3540236767, Springer Science & Business Media.
[19] Ghafoor A., Munir A.  Design and economics analysis of an off-grid PV system for household electrification, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (2015), Vol. 42, pp. 496-502.
[20] Gansler R. A., Klein S. A., Beckman W. A.  Assessment of the accuracy of generated meteorological data for use in solar energy simulation studies, Solar Energy, (1994), Vol. 53, pp. 279-287.
[21] Fahrenbruch A., Bube R.  Fundamentals of solar cells: photovoltaic solar energy conversion, (2012), 0323145388, Elsevier.
[22] El Chaar L., El Zein N.  Review of photovoltaic technologies, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, (2011), Vol. 15, pp. 2165-2175.
[23] Cunow E., Giesler B.  The megawatt solar roof at the new Munich Trade Fair Centre–an advanced and successful new concept for PV plants in the megawatt range, solar energy materials and solar cells, (2001), Vol. 67, pp. 459-467.
[24] Bube R. H., Bube R. H.  Photovoltaic materials, (1998), Vol.
[25] Bortolini M., Gamberi M., Graziani A.  Technical and economic design of photovoltaic and battery energy storage system, Energy Conversion and Management, (2014), Vol. 86, pp. 81-92.
[26] Bhuiyan M., Asgar M. A., Mazumder R., Hussain M.  Economic evaluation of a stand-alone residential photovoltaic power system in Bangladesh, Renewable energy, (2000), Vol. 21, pp. 403-410.
[27] Berwal A. K., Kumar S., Kumari N., Kumar V., Haleem A.  Design and analysis of rooftop grid-tied 50kW capacity Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) power plant, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (2017), Vol. 77, pp. 1288-1299.
[28] Naroei M., Sarhaddi F., Sobhnamayan F.  Efficiency of a photovoltaic thermal stepped solar still: Experimental and numerical analysis, Desalination, (2018), Vol. 441, pp. 87-95.
[29] Muneer T., Asif M., Kubie J.  Generation and transmission prospects for solar electricity: UK and global markets, Energy conversion and management, (2003), Vol. 44, pp. 35-52.
[30] Messenger R. A., Abtahi A.  Photovoltaic systems engineering, (2010), 1439802939, CRC press.
[31] Beygzadeh S., Beygzadeh V., Beygzadeh T.  Thermodynamic and economic comparison of photovoltaic electricity generation with and without self-cleaning photovoltaic panels, Energy Equipment and Systems, (2019), Vol. 7, pp. 263-270.
[32] Abdolzadeh M., Ameri M.  Improving the effectiveness of a photovoltaic water pumping system by spraying water over the front of photovoltaic cells, Renewable Energy, (2009), Vol. 34, pp. 91-96.
[33] Azami S., Vahdaty M., Torabi F.  Theoretical analysis of reservoir-based floating photovoltaic plant for 15-Khordad dam in Delijan, Energy Equipment and Systems, (2017), Vol. 5, pp. 211-218.
[34] DorobanĊ£u L., Popescu M. O.  Increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic panels through cooling water film, UPB Sci. Bull., Series C, (2013), Vol. 75, pp. 223-232.
[35] Jha P., Das B., Rezaie B.  Significant factors for enhancing the life cycle assessment of photovoltaic thermal air collector, Energy Equipment and Systems, (2019), Vol. 7, pp. 175-197.
[36] Keyvanmajd S., Sajadi B.  Toward the design of zero energy buildings (ZEB) in Iran: Climatic study, Energy Equipment and Systems, (2019), Vol. 7, pp. 111-119.
[37] Masoudi K., Abdi H.  Scenario-based technique applied to photovoltaic sources uncertainty, Energy Equipment and Systems, (2019), Vol. 7, pp. 297-308.
[38] Moharram K. A., Abd-Elhady M. S., Kandil H. A., El-Sherif H.  Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, (2013), Vol. 4, pp. 869-877.
[39] Askari I. B., Ameri M.  Techno-economic feasibility analysis of stand-alone renewable energy systems (PV/bat, Wind/bat and Hybrid PV/wind/bat) in Kerman, Iran, Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, (2012), Vol. 7, pp. 45-60.