Unsteady aerodynamic performance of Dual-Row H-Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 111, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark



H-rotor Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is one of the most efficient energy suppliers which have been investigated in many recent types of research. The aim of this work is to study the aerodynamic performance of a doubled-row H-Darrieus VAWT. First, an ordinary three-bladed VAWT with NACA4415 profile is simulated by means of 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and results are compared to a recently published research work based on Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. Afterward, a doubled-row H-Darrieus VAWT is simulated and analyzed in two different geometric configurations. In the first configuration, a second row with the same blade characteristics of the first row is added aligned with the first row and with 0.2 m distance toward it. In the second one, again with the same blade characteristics, the secondary blade is added with 0.2 m distance toward first row, but with 60 degrees angular offset. Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-ɛ turbulence model besides wall function is applied in all unsteady simulations. As comparative tools, based on other studies using the same coefficients, momentum coefficient ( ) and power coefficient   are calculated in all simulations to investigate which case operates more efficiently. It is observed that adding a second row to an ordinary H-Darrieus VAWT will improve these coefficients up to 314% which is a considerable leap in power production ability of the VAWT. Also, different turbulence models, geometries (with a central shaft and without central shaft) and solution methods were also analyzed and the effect of each one was computed and compared with other cases.


[1] P. I., “Double-Multiple Streamtube Model for Studying VAWT’s,” J. Propuls. Power, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 370–378, 1988.

[2] T. G. Abu-el-yazied, H. N. Doghiem, and A. M. Ali, “Investigation of the Aerodynamic Performance of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” IOSR J. Eng., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 18–29, 2014.

[3] M. Element and A. Blades, “ICFD11-EG-4039 Multi Element Airfoil Blades,” pp. 1–9, 2013.

[4] K. Hamada, T. Smith, and N. Durrani, “Unsteady flow simulation and dynamic stall around vertical axis wind turbine blades,” 46th AIAA Aerospaces …, no. January, pp. 1–11, 2008.

[5] L. X. Z. Y. B. Liang, X. H. L. Q. F. Jiao, and J. Guo, “Aerodynamic Performance Prediction of Straight-bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Based on CFD,” Adv. Mech. Eng., vol. 2013, p. 905379, 2012.

[6] Y. Chen and Y. Lian, “Numerical investigation of vortex dynamics in an H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine,” Eng. Appl. Comput. Fluid Mech., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2015.

[7] M. R. Hasan, R. Islam, G. M. H. Shahariar, and M. Mashud, “Numerical Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” 9th Int. Forum Strategic Tech. (IFOST) pp. 318-321, 2014.

[8] H. F. Lam and H. Y. Peng, “Study of wake characteristics of a vertical axis wind turbine by two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations,” Renew. Energy, vol. 90, pp. 386–398, 2016.

[9] M. Tahani, N. Babayan, S. Mehrnia, and M. Shadmehri, “A novel heuristic method for optimization of straight blade vertical axis wind turbine,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 127, pp. 461–476, 2016.

[10] Y. Wang, X. Sun, X. Dong, B. Zhu, D. Huang, and Z. Zheng, “Numerical investigation on aerodynamic performance of a novel vertical axis wind turbine with adaptive blades,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 108, pp. 275–286, 2016.

[11] J. H. Lee, Y. T. Lee, and H. C. Lim, “Effect of twist angle on the performance of Savonius wind turbine,” Renew. Energy, vol. 89, pp. 231–244, 2016.

[12] Y. Li, Y. F. Zheng, F. Feng, Q. B. He, and N. X. Wang, “Numerical simulation on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary blade,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 40, p. 12062, 2016.

[13] K. Rogowski, M. O. L. Hansen, R. Maroński, and P. Lichota, “Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 753, p. 22050, 2016.

[14] M. Scungio, F. Arpino, V. Focanti, M. Profili, and M. Rotondi, “Wind tunnel testing of scaled models of a newly developed Darrieus-style vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary straight blades,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 130, pp. 60–70, 2016.

[15] D. Saeidi, A. Sedaghat, P. Alamdari, and A. A. Alemrajabi, “Aerodynamic design and economical evaluation of site specific small vertical axis wind turbines,” Appl. Energy, vol. 101, pp. 765–775, 2013.

[16] H. Dai, Z. Yang, and L. Song, “-w Fhght path,” no. 71071078, pp. 695–700, 2014.

[17] N. Durrani, H. Hameed, H. Rahman, and S. R. Chaudhry, “A detailed Aerodynamic Design and analysis of a 2D vertical axis wind turbine using sliding mesh in CFD,” 49th AIAA Aerosp. Sci. Meet. Incl. New Horizons Forum Aerosp. Expo., no. January, pp. 1–16, 2011.

[18] Y. T. Lee and H. C. Lim, “Numerical study of the aerodynamic performance of a 500W Darrieus-type vertical-axis wind turbine,” Renew. Energy, vol. 83, pp. 407–415, 2015.

[19] O. Power, W. Meter, R. Dewil, L. Appels, and J. Baeyens, “User’s Guide,” Options, vol. 47, no. January, pp. 1711–1722, 2006.

[20] M. H. Shojaeefard, M. Tahani, M. B. Ehghaghi, M. A. Fallahian, and M. Beglari, “Numerical study of the effects of some geometric characteristics of a centrifugal pump impeller that pumps a viscous fluid,” Comput. Fluids, vol. 60, pp. 61–70, 2012.

[21] B. Diskin and J. L. Thomas, “Comparison of Node-Centered and Cell-Centered Unstructured Finite Volume Discretizations: Inviscid Fluxes,” Aiaa J., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 836–854, 2011.

[22] ANSYS, “Introduction to ANSYS Fluent,” ANSYS Cust. Train. Mater., no. December, pp. 1–59, 2010.

[23] T. J. Baker, “Mesh generation: Art or science?,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 29–63, 2005.

[24] H. Lewyt, “Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy,” no. March, 1967.

[25] F. D. I. Ingegneria, “Effect of Shaft Diameter on Darrieus Wind Turbine,” 2013.