Enhancers of the energy efficiency in tea processing industry

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Agricultural Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


The cost reduction of green tea processing, the control of fossil fuel resources, and the curbing of corresponding greenhouse gases emission depend on the energy efficiency of tea processing units. Therefore, it is imperative to identify and analyze factors determining energy efficiency of these agro-industrial units. To this end, the present descriptive survey was carried out on 40 managers of tea factories in Guilan Province, Iran. At the first phase of the study, the experts and managers of the tea manufacturing units were given an open-response question to identify the factors affecting energy productivity of tea industry. Then, the factors were divided into three broad categories of technical, managerial-policy, and knowledge-skill. The statistical analysis of final questionnaire data showed that “the correct and sound design of the new hot air furnaces”, “the enhancement of technical knowledge of technicians in withering, fermentation, drying and storage units”, and “optimum scheduling of withering operation with respect to the final status of green tea leaf” were found to be the most important technical, managerial-policy, and knowledge-skill factors determining the improvement of energy productivity in tea factories of Guilan Province, respectively. Accordingly, it is recommended to hold training courses to enhance energy productivity knowledge of tea factory managers, to improve the technical knowledge of technicians in withering, rolling, fermentation, drying, and storage units, to renew machinery and equipment of tea factories, to enforce manufacturing units to comply with relevant quality standards, and to allocate financial supports through low-interest loans for mounting tea processing machinery and equipment with high energy efficiency.


[1] Saptashish D., Jolvis Pou K.R., A Review of Withering in the Processing of Black Tea, Journal of Biosystems Engineering (2016) 41(4):365-372. doi: 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.4.365

[2] Hasanpour M., Tea Cultivation and Technology. University of Guilan’s Press (in Persian) (1998).

[3] Mahdavi R., Abbasi R, Measurement and Analysis of Factors Affecting Tea Industries of Guilan Province, Guilan’s Management and Programming Organization Pub. (in Persian)(2007).

[4] Miketa A, Mulder P., Energy Productivity Across Developed and Developing Countries in 10 Manufacturing Sectors: Patterns of Growth and Convergence, Energy Economics (2005) 27(3):429-453.

[5] Amini A., Yazdi Pour F., Analysis of Factors Affecting Energy Productivity in Iran's Large Industrial Workshops, Journal of Business Research (2008) 8(3): 71-104.

[6] Adenikinju A., Olumuyiawa A., Energy Use and Productivity Performance in the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector, OPEC Review (1999) 23(3): 251–264.

[7] Roy J., Productivity Trends in India's Energy Intensive Industries, Energy Journal (1999) 20(3): 33-61

[8] Qin Ni J., Zhou H., Energy Consumption and Conservation in Tea Processing in China, Renewable Energy (1992) 2(1): 1-5.

[9] Bulali Sayi J., Determinants of Energy Efficiency in Black Tea Processing Factories a Case of Kenya Tea Development Agency.  A Research Project Report Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management of the University of Nairobi (2014) 94.

[10] Taulo L., Sebitosi A.B., Energy Consumption Analysis for the Malawian Tea Industry, IEEE, 2015 International Conference on the Industrial and Commercial Use of Energy (ICUE),  Cape Town, South Africa (2015) 8, doi: 10.1109/ICUE.2015.7280268.

[11] Bartlett J.E., Kotrlik J.W., Higgins C.C., Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research, Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal (2001) 19(1):43-50.

[12] Pansalan T.G., Uriarte G.G. Statistics: A Simplified Approach, First Edition, REX Book Store, Manila, Philippine (1987) 215.

[13] Heiko A., Consensus Measurement in Delphi Studies: Review and Implications for Future Quality Assurance, Technological Forecasting and Social Change (2012) 79 (8):1525-1536.

[14] Azar A., Momeni M., Statistics and Application in Management. Samt Publication, Tehran (2007) 350 (In Farsi).

[15] Okoth M.W. Thermal Energy Conservation in Kenyan Tea Processing Plants Presented to a Workshop Held at Nyeri, As part of the Kenya Industrial Energy, Management Programme (1990) 271-273.

[16] Langat N.,  Thoruwa T., Wanyoko J., Kiplagat J., Plourde B.,  Abraham J., Models and Experiments for Energy Consumption and Quality of Green Tea Drying, Energy Science and Engineering (2015) 3(1): 43–50.

[17] Salavatian S.B., Madjd Salimi K, Javadi A., Energy Consumption in Black Tea Production in Tea Factories, Article Ready to be Published in Agricultural Mechanization and Systems research, 10.22092/erams.2017.106506.1100.

[18] Mabvuu N., Nyanga L., van der Merwe A.F., Matope S., Mhlanga S., Towards the Implementation of e-Manufacturing: Design of an Automatic Tea Drying Control System, South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (2014) 25(3): 199-211.

[19] Rudramoorthy R., Sunil Kumar C.P., Velavan R.,  Sivasubramaniam S. Innovative Measures for Energy Management in Tea Industry, Energy Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India (2008)..

[20]  De Silva W.C.A., Status Review of Energy Utilization by the Tea Industry in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Journal of Tea Science (1994) 63(2):46-58.