2016
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Performance improvement of a wind turbine blade using a developed inverse design method
2
2
The purpose of this study is to improve the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades, using the BallSpine inverse design method. The inverse design goal is to calculate a geometry corresponds to a given pressure distribution on its boundaries. By calculating the difference between the current and target pressure distributions, geometric boundaries are modified so that the pressure difference becomes negligible and the target geometry can be obtained. In this paper, The BallSpine inverse design algorithm as a shape modification algorithm is incorporated into CFX flow solver to optimize a wind turbine airfoil. First, the presented inverse design method is validated for a symmetric airfoil in viscous incompressible external flows. Then, the pressure distribution of the asymmetric airfoil of a horizontal wind turbine is modified in such a way that its loading coefficient increases. The lift coefficient and lift to drag ratio for the new modified airfoil get 5% and 3.8% larger than that of the original airfoil. The improved airfoil is substituted by the original airfoil, respectively. in the wind turbine. Finally, the aerodynamic performance of the new wind turbine is calculated by 3D numerical simulation. The results show that the power factor of the new optimized wind turbine is about 3.2% larger than that of the original one.
1

1
10


Mahdi
NiliAhmadabadi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan
Iran


Farzad
Mokhtarinia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan
Iran
farzad.9889@yahoo.com


Mehdi
Shirani
Subsea R&D Center, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Subsea R&D Center, Isfahan University
Iran
mehdi.shirani@cc.iut.ac.ir
ANSYS CFX
Improved Aerodynamics
Inverse Design
Wind Turbine Airfoil
[[1] Stanitz J.D., Design of TwoDimensional Channels with Prescribed Velocity Distributions along the Duct Walls, Technical Report 1115, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (1953). ##[2] Dedoussis V., Chaviaropoulos P., Papailiou K.D., Rotational Compressible Inverse Design Method for TwoDimensional, Internal Flow Configurations, AIAA Journal, (1993) 31: 551558. ##[3] Garabedian P., McFadden G., Computational Fluid Dynamics of Airfoils and Wings. Journal Scientific Computing (1982)116. ##[4] Garabedian P., McFadden G., Design of Supercritical Swept Wings. AIAA Journal (1982) 20:28991. ##[5] Malone J., Vadyak J., Sankar L., Inverse Aerodynamic Design Method for Aircraft Components, Journal of Aircraft. (1987)24:89. ##[6] Malone J., Vadyak J., Sankar L., A Technique for the Inverse Aerodynamic Design of Nacelles and Wing Configurations, AAIA Paper, AAIA854096(1985). ##[7] Malone J., Narramore J., Sankar L., An Efficient Airfoil Design Method Using the Navier–Stokes Equations, AGARD, Paper 5 (1989). ##[8] Dulikravich G.S., Baker D.P., Using Existing FlowField Analysis Codes for Inverse Design of ThreeDimentional Aerodynamic Shapes. Recent Development of Aerodynamic Design Methodologies, (1999) 89112 Springer. ##[9] Barger R. L., Brooks C. W., A Streamline Curvature Method for Design of Supercritical and Subcritical Airfoils, NASA TN D7770(1974). ##[10] Campbell R.L., Smith L.A., A Hybrid Algorithm for Transonic Airfoil and Wing Design, AIAA Paper 872552 (1987). ##[11] Bell R.A., Cedar R.D., An Inverse Method for the Aerodynamic Design of ThreeDimensional Aircraft Engine Nacelles (1991) (See Dulikravich 1991, 40517). ##[12] Malone J.B., Narramore J.C., Sankar L.N., An Efficient Airfoil Design Method Using the NavierStokes Equations (1989) (See AGARD 1989, Paper 5). ##[13] NiliAhmadabadi M., Durali M., HajilouyBenisi A., Ghadak F., Inverse Design of 2D Subsonic Ducts Using Flexible String Algorithm. Journal Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering. (2009) 17: 103757. ##[14] NiliAhmadabadi M., Hajilouy A., Durali M., Ghadak F., Duct Design in Subsonic & Supersonic Flow Regimes with & without Shock Using Flexible String Algorithm, Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo (2009) Florida, USA, GT200959744. ##[15] NiliAhmadabadi M., HajilouyBenisi A., Ghadak F., Durali M., A Novel 2D Incompressible Viscous Inverse Design Method for Internal Flows Using Flexible String Algorithm, Journal of fluids engineering. (2010) 132. ##[16] NiliAhmadabadi M., Durali M., HajilouyBenisi A., A Novel Aerodynamic Design Method for Centrifugal Compressor Impeller, Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics (2014) 7: 329344. ##[17] Nili Ahmadabadi M., Ghadak F., Mohammadi M., Subsonic and Transonic Airfoil Inverse Design via BallSpine Algorithm, Journal Computers & Fluids (2013). ##[18] Henriques J.C.C., Marques da Silva F., Estanqueiro A.I., Gato L.M.C., Design of a New Urban Wind Turbine Airfoil Using a PressureLoad Inverse Method. Renewable Energy (2009) 34:2728–2734. ##[19]Kamouna B., Afungchuia D., Abid M., The Inverse Design of the Wind Turbine Blade Sections by the Singularities Method, Renewable Energy (2006) 31: 2091–2107.##]
Evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell anode based on active triple phase boundary length and tortuosity
2
2
An efficient procedure is presented for the evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode microstructure triple phase boundary length (TPBL). Triple phase boundary the one that is common between three phases of the microstructure has a great influence on the overall efficiency of SOFC because all electrochemical reactions of anode take place in its vicinity. Therefore, evaluation of TPBL for virtual or experimental 3D microstructures is essential for comparison purposes and the optimization processes. In this study, first, an algorithm is proposed to distinguish between percolated and nonpercolated clusters for each of the phases. Then, another algorithm is used to determine the value of TPBL for all percolated clusters of three phases. Also, a procedure based on thermal and diffusion analogy is presented to assess the tortuosity of porous and solid phases. Finally for a virtual microstructure, percolated clusters, active and total TPBL and tortuosity are calculated and discussed.
1

11
19


Ali
Hasanabadi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 111554563, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran


Majid
Baniassadi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 111554563, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
m.baniassadi@ut.ac.ir


Karen
Abrinia
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 111554563, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran


Mostafa
Baghani
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 111554563, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran


Mohsen
Mazrouei Sebdani
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 111554563, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
Active Triple Phase Boundary Length
Anode
Active Cluster
Solid oxide fuel cell
Tortuosity
[[1] Dincer I., Colpan C. O., CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Stationary Fuel Cells, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, From Materials to System Modeling, ed: The Royal Society of Chemistry (2013) 125, ISBN 9781849736541, The Royal Society of Chemistry. ##[2] Bove R. and Ubertini S., Modeling Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Methods, Procedures and Techniques (2014) 313, ISBN 9789400796102, Springer Netherlands. ##[3] Cronin J. S., ChenWiegart Y.c. K., Wang J., Barnett S. A., ThreeDimensional Reconstruction and Analysis of an Entire Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by FullField Transmission Xray Microscopy, Journal of Power Sources (2013) 233: 174179. ##[4] Lanzini A., Leone P., Asinari P., Microstructural Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes by Image Analysis Technique, Journal of Power Sources (2009) 194: 408422. ##[5] He W., Lv W., Dickerson J. H., Gas Transport in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (2014) 133 ,ISBN 9783319097367 , New York: Springer. ##[6] Baniassadi M., Garmestani H., Li D. S., Ahzi S., Khaleel M., Sun X., ThreePhase Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Microstructure Realization Using TwoPoint Correlation Functions, Acta Materialia (2011) 59: 3043. ##[7] Endo A., Wada S., Wen C. J., Komiyama H., Yamada K., Low Overvoltage Mechanism of High Ionic Conducting Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Journal of The Electrochemical Society (1998) 145: L35L37. ##[8] Song X., Diaz A. R., Benard A., Nicholas J. D., A 2D Model for Shape Optimization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2013) 47: 453464. ##[9] Baniassadi M., Ahzi S., Garmestani H., Ruch D., Remond Y., New Approximate Solution for NPoint Correlation Functions for Heterogeneous Materials, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids (2012) 60: 104119. ##[10] Hamedani H. A., Baniassadi M., Khaleel M., Sun X., Ahzi S., Garmestani H., Microstructure, Property and Processing Relation in Gradient Porous Cathode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Statistical Continuum Mechanics, Journal of Power Sources (2011) 196: 63256331. ##[11] Ghazavizadeh A., Soltani N., Baniassadi M., Addiego F., Ahzi S., Garmestani H., Composition of TwoPoint Correlation Functions of Subcomposites in Heterogeneous Materials, Mechanics of Materials (2012) 51: 8896. ##[12] Amani Hamedani H., Baniassadi M., Sheidaei A., Pourboghrat F., Rémond Y., Khaleel M., et al., ThreeDimensional Reconstruction and Microstructure Modeling of PorosityGraded Cathode Using Focused Ion Beam and Homogenization Techniques, Fuel Cells (2014) 14: 9195. ##[13] Tabei S. A., Sheidaei A., Baniassadi M., Pourboghrat F., Garmestani H., Microstructure Reconstruction and Homogenization of Porous NiYSZ Composites for Temperature Dependent Properties, Journal of Power Sources (2013) 235: 7480. ##[14] Irvine J. T.S., Connor P., Solid Oxide Fuels Cells, Facts and Figures (2013) 125 ,ISBN 9781447144557 ,London, SpringerVerlag. ##[15] Sebdani M. M., Baniassadi M., Jamali J., Ahadiparast M., Abrinia K., Safdari M., Designing an Optimal 3D Microstructure for ThreePhase Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes with Maximal Active Triple Phase Boundary Length (TPBL), International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2015) 40: 1558515596. ##[16]Deng X., Petric A., Geometrical Modeling of the TriplePhaseBoundary in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Journal of Power Sources (2005) 140: 297303. ##[17] Janardhanan V. M., Heuveline V., Deutschmann O., ThreePhase Boundary Length in SolidOxide Fuel Cells, A Mathematical Model, Journal of Power Sources (2008) 178: 368372. ##[18] Golbert J., Adjiman C. S., Brandon N. P., Microstructural Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2008) 47: 76937699. ##[19] Suzue Y., Shikazono N., Kasagi N., Micro Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Based on Stochastic Reconstruction, Journal of Power Sources (2008) 184: 5259. ##[20] Wilson J. R., Cronin J. S., Duong A. T., Rukes S., Chen H.Y., Thornton K., et al., Effect of Composition of (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3–Y2O3stabilized ZrO2) Cathodes, Correlating ThreeDimensional Microstructure and Polarization Resistance, Journal of Power Sources (2010) 195: 18291840. ##[21] Shikazonoz N., Kanno D., Matsuzaki K., Teshima H., Sumino S., Kasagi N., Numerical Assessment of SOFC Anode Polarization Based on ThreeDimensional Model Microstructure Reconstructed from FIBSEM Images, Journal of Electrochem. Society (2010) 157: B665B672. ##[22] Iwai H., Shikazono N., Matsui T., Teshima H., Kishimoto M., Kishida R., et al., Quantification of SOFC Anode Microstructure Based on Dual Beam FIBSEM Technique, Journal of Power Sources (2010) 195: 955961. ##[23] Hoshen J., Kopelman R., Percolation and Cluster Distribution. I. Cluster Multiple Labeling Technique and Critical Concentration Algorithm, Physical Review B (1976) 14: 34383445. ##[24] Torquato S., Random Heterogeneous Materials, Microstructure and Macroscopic Properties (2002) 355357 ,ISBN 9781475763577, New York, SpringerVerlag. ##[25] Riazat M., Baniasadi M., Mazrouie M., Tafazoli M., Moghimi Zand M., The Effect of Cathode Porosity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance, Energy Equipment and Systems (2015) 3: 2532. ##[26] Vivet N., Chupin S., Estrade E., Richard A., Bonnamy S., Rochais D., et al., Effect of Ni Content in SOFC NiYSZ Cermets, A ThreeDimensional Study by FIBSEM Tomography, Journal of Power Sources (2011) 196: 99899997. ##[27] Shikazono N., Kasagi N., CHAPTER 8 ThreeDimensional Numerical Modelling of NiYSZ Anode, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: From Materials to System Modeling (2013) 200218, ISBN 9781849736541, The Royal Society of Chemistry.##]
Matlab simulation of solar panel MSX64 at the best locations of Kermanshah province using GIS interpolation
2
2
Considering that the effective yield of a panel is equal to its total number of hours of solar radiation and temperature, only the effects of temperature and solar radiation intensity at the maximum power point (MPP) are investigated in this article. By collecting temperature data, sun's radiation hours from six synoptic meteorological stations in Kermanshah Province over the course of an elevenyear period (19952005), with the use of GIS software, a map of Kermanshah Province's temperature and radiation based on plotted latitude and longitude as well as the establishment of regression, the most suitable location for solar panels is proposed. In this MATLAB software simulation using the characteristics of panel MSX64, all parameters have been considered and determined by the characteristics of the panel. Throughout the process, the design has been based on four parameters as the primary specifications of the solar panels: Isc, Voc, Imp, Vmp. With the ability to simulate other solar panels with temperatures and radiation intensity corresponding to each area, the IV curve of each custom solar panel can be drawn, making it possible to obtain the maximum power.
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21
30


Milad
ImaniHarsini
Department of Electronics, College of Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Electronics, College of Engineering, Kermanshah Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah,
Department of Electronics, College of Engineering,
Iran


Mohammad M.
Karkhanehchi
Department of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran;
Department of Electronics, College of Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
Department of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering,
Iran
GIS
Interpolation
MATLAB
regression
Solar panel Msx64
[[1] Lund H., Mathiesen B. V., Energy System Analysis of 100% Renewable Energy Systems,The Case of Denmark in Years 2030 and 2050, Energy 4th Dubrovnik Conference (2009) Jan.1213, 34: 524–531. ##[2] Nature of solar energy, http://www.suna.org.ir/fa/sun/nature, Accessed (2015)20 Jan. ##[3] Woolfson M., The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System (2000) 1.12–1.19, ISBN 0750304588, Wiley. ##[4] Nema S., Nema R. K., Agnihotri G., MATLAB/Simulink Based Study of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules/Array and Their Experimental Verification, International Journal of Energy and Environ (2010) 1: 487–500. ##[5] Mulvaney D., Green Technology, an AtoZ Guide (2011) 1–524, ISBN 1412996929, SAGE Publications Press. ##[6] Femia N., Petrone G., Spagnuolo G., et al., Optimization of Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Method, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics (2005) 20: 963–973. ##[7] Faranda R., Leva S., Energy Comparison of MPPT Techniques for PV Systems, WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems (2008) 3: 446–455. ##[8] Kumari J. S., Babu C. S., Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell Using MatlabSimulink Environment, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Enginering (IJECE) (2011) 2: 26–34. ##[9] Climatology & Geography of Kermanshah Province  Meteorological Organization Kermanshah’, http://www.kermanshahmet.ir/page.aspx?lang=fair&id=b5ed122df4654813b59654a0a1d2d895, Accessed (2014) 23 Jul. ##[10]Meteorological Kermanshah’, http://www.kermanshahmet.ir/page.aspx?lang=fair&id=b5ed122df4654813b59654a0a1d2d895, Accessed (2015) 22 Jan. ##[11] Statistics 200 synoptic stations in Iran’, http://www.chaharmahalmet.ir/iranarchive.asp, Accessed (2015)22 Jan. ##[12] GonzálezLongatt F. M., Model of Photovoltaic Module in Matlab, II CIBELEC Conference (2005) Jun, 2:15. ##[13] Mishra B., Kar B. P., Matlab Based Modeling of Photovoltaic Array Characteristics, Bachelor thesis, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, (2012). ##[14] Pagliaro M., Ciriminna R., and Palmisano G., Flexible solar cells (2008) 880–891, ISBN 3527323759, ChemSusChem Press 1(11) Wiley. ##[15] Sinton R. A., Forsyth M. K., Blum A. L., et al., Characterization of Substrate Doping and Series Resistance During Solar Cell Efficiency MEASUREMENT, United States Patent Application (US20140333319 A1) (2014) 1: 1–5. ##[16] Bernardi M., Novel Materials, Computational Spectroscopy, and Multiscale Simulation in Nanoscale Photovoltaics, PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts (2013). ##[17] Solarex MSX64 Solar Panel, http://www.solarelectricsupply.com/solarexmsx64wjunctionbox548, Accessed (2015) 20 Jan. ##[18] Rouholamini A., Pourgharibshahi H., Fadaeinedjad R., et al., Temperature of a Photovoltaic Module under the Influence of Different Environmental Conditions–Experimental Investigation, International Journal of Ambient Energy (2016) 37: 1–7. ##[19] VisolyFisher I., Mescheloff A., Gabay M., et al., Concentrated Sunlight for Accelerated Stability Testing of Organic Photovoltaic Materials, Towards Decoupling Light Intensity and Temperature, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2015) 134: 99–107. ##[20] Said S., Massoud A., Benammar M., et al., A Matlab/SimulinkBased Photovoltaic Array Model Employing SimPowerSystems Toolbox, Journal of Energy and Power Engineering (2012) 6: 1965–1975.##]
The effect of hemispherical chevrons angle, depth, and pitch on the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in compact plate heat exchangers
2
2
Plate heat exchangers are widely used in industries due to their special characteristics, such as high thermal efficiency, small size, light weight, easy installation, maintenance, and cleaning. The purpose of this study is to consider the effect of depth, angle, and pitch of hemispheric Chevrons on the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. In the simulation of the heat exchanger, water and stainless steel are chosen for fluid and plate materials, respectively. The process is considered to be steady state, singlephase, and turbulent. In brief results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop decrease where the Chevrons depth and pitch increase. Moreover, these parameters enhance increment of the Chevrons angle up to 90°, after which they decrease with the Chevron angle. lastly, results are compared with Kumar equation which has been presented for corrugated plates. Maximum relative difference in this comparison is approximately 30%. As a result, a new correlation is proposed for the convective heat transfer coefficient in terms of the Reynolds number and the plate geometry.
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31
41


Behrang
Sajadi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
bsajadi@ut.ac.ir


Pedram
Hanafizadeh
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
hanafizadeh@ut.ac.ir


Samar
Bahman
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
ssamar916@gmail.com


Ghazale
Hayati
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
ghazale.hayati@yahoo.com
Chevron Angle
Chevron Depth
Chevron Pitch
Numerical analysis
Plate Heat Exchanger
[[1] Focke W.W., Zachariades J., Olivier I., The Effect of the Corrugation Inclination Angle on the Thermohydraulic Performance of Plate Heat Exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (1985) 28: 14691479. ##[2] Gaiser G., Kottke V., Effects of Wavelength and Inclination Angle on the Homogeneity of Local Heat Transfer Coefficients in Plate Heat Exchanger, Proceedings of 11th International Heat Transfer Conference (1998). ##[3] Muley A., Manglik R.M., Experimental Study of Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Plate Heat Exchanger with Chevron Plates, Journal of Heat Transfer (1999) 121: 110117. ##[4] Dovic D., Svaic S., Influence of Chevron Plates Geometry on Performance of Plate Heat Exchangers, Tehnicki Vjesnik, (2007) 14: 3745. ##[5] Durmus A., Benli H., Gul H., Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Plate Heat Exchanger Having Different Surface Profiles, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (2009) 52: 14511457. ##[6] Andersson E., Quah J., Polley G.T., Experience in the Application of Compabloc in Refinery Preheat Trains and First Analysis of Data from an Operational Unit, Proceeding of International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VIII (2009). ##[7] Han X.H., Cui L.Q., Chen S.J., Chen G.M., Wang Q., A Numerical and Experimnetal Study of Chevron, Corrugatedplate Heat Exchangers, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer (2010) 37: 10081014. ##[8] Muthuraman S., The Characteristics of Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers with Different Chevron Angle, Global Journal of Researches in Engineering (2011) 11: 1125. ##[9] Tamakloe E.K., Polley G.T., Nuez M.P., Design of Compabloc Exchanger to Mitigate Refinery Fouling, Applied Thermal Engineering (2012) 60: 441448. ##[10] Faizal M., Ahmed M.R., Experimental Studies on a Corrugated Plate Heat Exchanger for Small Temperature Difference Applications, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science (2012) 36: 242248. ##[11] Fahmy A.A., Flat Plate Heat Exchanger Design for MTR Reactor Upgrading, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research (2013) 4: 18. ##[12] Yakhot V., Orszag S.A., Thangam S., Gatski T.B., Speziale C.G., Development of Turbulence Models for Shear Flows by a Double Expansion Technique, Physics of Fluids A (1992) 4: 15101520. ##[13] Launder B.E., Spalding D.B., The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (1974) 3: 269289. ##[14] Patankar S.V., Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (1980), Taylor & Francis. ##[15] Kakac S., Liu H., Pramuanjaroenkij A., Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating, and Thermal Design (2002), CRC Press.##]
Thermoeconomic optimization and exergy analysis of transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle with an ejector
2
2
The purpose of this research is to investigate thermoeconomic optimization and exergy analysis of transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle with an ejector. After modeling thermodynamic equations of elements and considering optimization parameters of emerging temperature of gas of cooler (Tgc) , emerging pressure of cooler's gas (Pgc) , and evaporative temperature (Tevp) , optimization of target function is done. Target function indicates total expenses of the system during a year which is consisted of expenses of entering exergy and spending on the system's equipment. Optimized amplitude of decision variables are gained by the balance between the entering exergy and yearly initial capital investing. Results indicate reduction in yearly total expenses of system (34%) and enhancement in thermodynamic functionality coefficient and exergetic efficiency in optimum point toward end point.
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43
52


Ali
Behbahaninia
Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi
Iran
alibehbahaninia@kntu.ac.ir


Saeed
Shams
Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi
Iran
a_shams125@yahoo.com
Exergy
Refrigeration
Thermoeconomic
Transcritical CO2
[[1]Kornhauser, A. A., The Use of an Ejector as a Refrigerant Expander, Proceedings of the 1990 USNC/IIR–Purdue Refrigeration Conference (1990) 1019. ##[2]Ozaki Y, Takeuchi H, Hirata T., Regeneration of Expansion Energy by Ejector in CO2 Cycle. Proceedings of Sixth IIRG. Lorentzen Natural Working Fluid Conference (2004) 142149 ##[3]Working group, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change (2001). ##[4]Neksa P., CO2 Heat Pump Systems, International Journal of Refrigeration (2002) 25: 421–7. ##[5]Kim M.H., Pettersen J., Bullard C.W., Fundamental Process and System Design Issues in CO2 Vapor Compression Systems, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (2004) 30: 4149. ##[6]Liu JP, Chen JP, Chen ZJ, Thermodynamic Analysis on TransCritical R744 Vapor Compression/Ejection Hybrid Refrigeration Cycle, Proceedings of Fifth IIR G. Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids, Guangzhou (2002). ##[7] Fangtian S., Yitai M., Thermodynamic Analysis of Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration Cycle with an Ejector, Tianjin Conference, China(2010). ##[8] Elbel S.W., Hrnjak P.S., Effect of Internal Heat Exchanger on Performance of Transcritical CO2 Systems with Ejector, Tenth International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue,West Lafayette (2004). ##[9] Ozaki Y., Takeuchi H., Hirata T., Regeneration of Expansion Energy by Ejector in CO2 Cycle, Proceedings of Sixth IIRG. Lorentzen Natural Working Fluid Conference, Glasgow, UK (2004). ##[10] Sarkar J., Ejector Enhanced Vapor Compression Refrigeration and Heat Pump SystemsA Review, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology (B.H.U.), India (2012). ##[11]Li D, Groll E.A., Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration Cycle with EjectorExpansion Device, International Journal Refrigeration (2005) 28: 766–73. ##[12]Valero, A., CGAM problem: definition and conventional solution. Energy,(1994) 19. pp 268279. ##[13]Selbas R., Kızılkan O., Sencana A., Economic Optimization of Subcooled and Superheated Vapor Compression, Energy (2006) 31: 21082128 ##[14] E1Sayed Y.M., Designing Desalination Systems for Higher Productivity, Advanced Energy Systems Analysis, Higgins Way, Fremont, USA (2005).##]
Study on performance and methods to optimize thermal oil boiler efficiency in cement industry
2
2
Cement production is an energyintensive process, so that the cement industry occupies a top position among other energyconsuming industries. Among the equipment used in cement industries, boilers are one of the energyconsuming equipment. Boilers are among the common heating equipment in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities. In this paper, the performance of thermal oil boiler and useful methods in improving its efficiency and saving energy was investigated. Under normal condition, results showed that the boiler was only working with 55% of its capacity, and in this case, boiler efficiency was 77.48%, based on the heat loss method. Moreover, optimization of excess air level in combustion process as one of the improving performance methods increased the boiler efficiency by about 3%. The volume of fuel was also reduced to about 34.07 m3/HR, using economizer as another method.
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53
64


Hamideh
Mehdizadeh
Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum, and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, 3519645399,Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum, and Gas Engineerin
Iran


Abbas
Alishah
Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum, and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, 3519645399,Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum, and Gas Engineerin
Iran


Saeid
Hojjati Astani
Technical Department, Mazandaran Cement Company, Neka, Iran
Technical Department, Mazandaran Cement Company,
Iran
Boiler Efficiency
Economizer
Excess Air
Thermal Oil Boiler
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Improving the performance of wind turbine equipped with DFIG using STATCOM based on inputoutput feedback linearization controller
2
2
Using the FACTS controllers, such as static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), as it provides continuous reactive power, in the grid including wind turbine (WT) equipped with doubly fed induction generator, for improving voltage profile (under normal circumstances) and providing a transition ability from inductor generator transition state has been proposed. In this paper, in order to control the controllers and explained goals, nonlinear controller, as a substitute for the traditional controller, is presented. Replacing STATCOM controller in wind farm, which is equipped with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) using inputoutput feedback linearization controller, the needed reactive power in order to stable wind farm equipped with DFIG is considered when error is occurred. The proposed control method has been simulated for IEEE9 Bus, bus No 5, and the achievability to the desired targets in STATCOM efficiency for its reactive power has been investigated. The reasons of using these controllers in bus 5 are voltage dropping and reducing reactive power in this bus. It can be seen by compensating for voltage and reactive power in this bus that these two parameters have improved in other buses. The results show that with the proposed controller, STATCOM has done its duty well and the network bus voltage and reactive power to sustain the wind farm equipped with DFIG in transient mode is provided.
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Ghazanfar
Shahgholian
Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
shahgholian@iaun.ac.ir


Noushaz
Izadpanahi
Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
n.izadpanahy@gmail.com
Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Static Synchronous Compensator
Transition State
Wind Farm
InputOutput Feedback Linearization Controller
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